Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity. A depressed person will experience or display some of the following:

  • Persistent sadness, anxiety or feelings of emptiness
  • Feelings of hopelessness, helplessness and/or pessimism.
  • Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
  • Contemplating suicide or suicide attempt
  • Problems concentrating, remembering details and making decisions
  • Fatigue and loss of energy
  • Persistent aches, pains or digestive problems that are resistant to treatment
  • Irritability or restlessness
  • Insomnia, waking early, or excessive sleeping
  • Overeating, or appetite loss

 

Management

The three most common treatments for depression are psychotherapy, medication, and electroconvulsive therapy. Psychotherapy is the treatment of choice for people under 18, while electroconvulsive therapy is only used as a last resort. Care is usually given on an outpatient basis, while treatment in an inpatient unit is considered if there is a significant risk to self or others. A significant number of recent studies have indicated that physical exercise has beneficial effects.

Treatment options are much more limited in developing countries, where access to mental health staff, medication, and psychotherapy is often difficult. Development of mental health services is minimal in many countries; depression is viewed as a phenomenon of the developed world despite evidence to the contrary, and not as an inherently life-threatening condition.

 

Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy can be delivered, to individuals or groups, by mental health professionals, including psychotherapists, psychiatrists, psychologists, clinical social workers, counselors, and suitably trained psychiatric nurses. With more complex and chronic forms of depression, a combination of medication and psychotherapy may be used. In people under 18, according to the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, medication should only be offered in conjunction with a psychological therapy, such as CBT, interpersonal therapy, or family therapy. Psychotherapy has been shown to be effective in older people. Successful psychotherapy appears to reduce the recurrence of depression even after it has been terminated or replaced by occasional booster sessions.

The most-studied form of psychotherapy for depression is CBT, that teaches clients to challenge self-defeating, but enduring ways of thinking (cognitions) and change counter-productive behaviours. Research beginning in the mid-1990s suggested that CBT could perform as well or better than antidepressants in patients with moderate to severe depression. CBT may be effective in depressed adolescents, although its effects on severe episodes are not definitively known. Combining fluoxetine with CBT appeared to bring no additional benefit, or, at the most, only marginal benefit. Several variables predict success for cognitive behavioral therapy in adolescents: higher levels of rational thoughts, less hopelessness, fewer negative thoughts, and fewer cognitive distortions. CBT is particularly beneficial in preventing relapse. Several variants of cognitive behavior therapy have been used in depressed patients, most notably rational emotive behavior therapy, and more recently mindfulness-based cognitive therapy.

 

Psychoanalysis is a school of thought, founded by Sigmund Freud, which emphasizes the resolution of unconscious mental conflicts. Psychoanalytic techniques are used by some practitioners to treat clients presenting with major depression. A more widely practiced, called psychodynamic psychotherapy, is loosely based on psychoanalysis and has an additional social and interpersonal focus. In a meta-analysis of three controlled trials of Short Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy, this modification was found to be as effective as medication for mild to moderate depression. Logotherapy, a form of existential psychotherapy developed by Austrian psychiatrist Viktor Frankl, addresses the filling of an “existential vacuum” associated with feelings of futility and meaninglessness. It is posited that this type of psychotherapy may be useful for depression in older adolescents.

 

Antidepressants

The effects of prescription antidepressants are somewhat superior to those of psychotherapy, especially in cases of chronic major depression, although in short-term trials more patients—especially those with less serious forms of depression—cease medication than cease psychotherapy, most likely due to adverse effects from the medication and to patients’ preferences for psychological therapies over pharmacological treatments.